By Felix M. Gradstein, James G. Ogg, Alan G. Smith
Half I. advent: 1. advent F. M. Gradstein; 2. Chronostratigraphy - linking time and rock F. M. Gradstein, J. G. Ogg and A. G. Smith; half II. techniques and strategies: three. Biostratigraphy F. M. Gradstein, R. A. Cooper and P. M. Sadler; four. Earth's orbital parameters and cycle stratigraphy L. A. Hinnov; five. The geomagnetic polarity time scale J. G. Ogg and A. G. Smith; 6. Radiogenic isotope geochronology M. Villeneuve; 7. reliable isotopes J. M. McArthur and R. J. Howarth; eight. Geomathematics F. P. Agterberg; half III. Geologic classes: nine. The Precambrian: the Archaen and Proterozoic eons L. J. Robb, A. H. Knoll, ok. A. Plumb, G. A. Shields, H. Strauss and J. Veizer; 10. towards a 'natural' Precambrian time scale W. Bleeker; eleven. The Cambrian interval J. H. Shergold and R. A. Cooper; 12. The Ordovician interval R. A. Cooper and P. M. Sadler; thirteen. The Silurian interval M. J. Melchin, R. A. Cooper and P. M. Sadler; 14. The Devonian interval M. R. condo and F. M. Gradstein; 15. The Carboniferous interval V. Davydov, B. R. Wardlaw and F. M. Gradstein; sixteen. The Permian interval B. R. Wardlaw, V. Davydov and F. M. Gradstein; 17. The Triassic interval J. G. Ogg; 18. The Jurassic interval J. G. Ogg; 19. The Cretaceous interval J. G. Ogg, F. P. Agterberg and F. M. Gradstein; 20. The Paleogene interval H. P. Luterbacher, J. R. Ali, H. Brinkhuis, F. M. Gradstein, J. J. Hooker, S. Monechi, J. G. Ogg, J. Powell, U. Rohl, A. Sanfilippo, and B. Schmitz; 21. The Neogene interval L. Lourens, F. Hilgen, N. J. Shackleton, J. Laskar and D. Wilson; 22. The Pleistocene and Holocene epochs P. Gibbard and T. van Kolfschoten; half IV. precis: 23. development and precis of the geologic time scale F. M.. Gradstein, J. G. Ogg and A. G. Smith; Appendices; Bibliography; Stratigraphic index; common index
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Its correlation potential – has to be thoroughly tested. In this sense, correlation precedes deﬁnition” (Remane, 2003). Without correlation, stratigraphic units and their constituent boundaries are of not much use, and devoid of meaning for Earth history. Most GSSPs coincide with a single “primary marker,” which is generally a biostratigraphic event, but other stratigraphic events with widespread correlation potential should coincide or bracket the GSSP level. g. Fig. 2). g. ). The requirement for continuous sedimentation across the GSSP level and the bracketing correlation markers is to avoid assigning a boundary to a known “gap” in the geologic record.
The Jurassic scales of van Hinte (1976), NDS82, KG85, EX88, Westermann (1988), and SEPM95 relied on biochronology to interpolate the duration of stages. As a ﬁrst approximation, it was assumed that the numerous ammonite zones and/or subzones of the Jurassic have approximately equal mean duration between adjacent stages. Toarcian and Bajocian Stages have double the number of ammonite subzones compared to the Aalenian, so are assumed to span twice as much time. g. Westermann, 1988). KG85 and SEPM95 also took into account some intra-Jurassic age control points to constrain the proportional scaling of the component stages.
1983). Difﬁculties in identifying global correlation criteria, problems introduced by biogeographic provincialism, and the occasional need to abandon stage concepts based on historical regional usage have slowed assignment of GSSPs in some periods, as will be elaborated in Chapters 11–22. Suitable GSSPs with full documentation are proposed by stratigraphic subcommissions or working groups under ICS; undergo approval voting through ICS and ratiﬁcation by IUGS; and then are published in Lethaia (journal ofﬁcially dedicated to ICS science), with summary documentation being published in Episodes (ofﬁcial journal of IUGS).