By Mizuho Yabushita
The subject of this thesis is catalytic conversion of non-food, ample, and renewable biomass reminiscent of cellulose and chitin to chemical substances. In biorefinery, chemical transformation of polymers to precious compounds has attracted world wide curiosity for construction sustainable societies. First, the present scenario of this scorching examine zone has been summarized good within the normal creation of the thesis, which is helping readers to familiarize yourself with this subject. subsequent, the writer explains high-yielding construction of glucose from cellulose by utilizing an alkali-activated carbon as a catalyst, leading to a yield of glucose as excessive as 88%, that's one of many maximum yields ever said. The characterization of carbon fabrics has indicated that vulnerable acid websites at the catalyst advertise the response, that is markedly varied from stated catalytic structures that require powerful acids. additionally, the 1st catalytic transformation of chitin with retention of N-acetyl teams has been constructed. the combo of mechanocatalytic hydrolysis and thermal solvolysis permits the construction of N-acetylated monomers in sturdy yields of as much as 70%. The catalytic structures established during this thesis are distinctive within the fields of either chemistry and chemical engineering, and their excessive efficiencies can give a contribution to eco-friendly and sustainable chemistry sooner or later. in the meantime, mechanistic stories according to characterization, thermodynamics, kinetics, and version reactions have additionally been played to bare the jobs of catalysts throughout the reactions. the implications should be precious for readers to layout and strengthen new catalysts and response systems.
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Extra info for A Study on Catalytic Conversion of Non-Food Biomass into Chemicals: Fusion of Chemical Sciences and Engineering
Gallezot P, Nicolaus N, Fleche G, Fuertes P, Perrard A (1998) Glucose hydrogenation on ruthenium catalysts in a trickle-bed reactor. J Catal 180(1):51–55 61. Li H, Wang W, Deng JF (2000) Glucose hydrogenation to sorbitol over a skeletal Ni-P amorphous alloy catalyst (Raney Ni-P). J Catal 191(1):257–260 62. Li H, Li H, Deng J-F (2002) Glucose hydrogenation over Ni–B/SiO2 amorphous alloy catalyst and the promoting effect of metal dopants. Catal Today 74(1):53–63 63. Hoffer BW, Crezee E, Devred F, Mooijman PRM, Sloof WG, Kooyman PJ, van Langeveld AD, Kapteijn F, Moulijn JA (2003) The role of the active phase of Raney-type Ni catalysts in the selective hydrogenation of D-glucose to D-sorbitol.
Additionally, for practical use, catalysts need to preserve their catalytic activity even in the presence of salts derived from raw biomass, but strong acids are easily deactivated by ion exchange due to their low pKa [154, 213]. Interestingly, it has been found that carbon materials even without sulfonation promote the hydrolysis of cellulose, and weakly acidic active sites are expected to resist ion exchange with salts. Hence, one of the objectives of this work is depolymerization of cellulose and raw biomass to sugars using carbon materials without strong acid sites in high efﬁciency.
2, entry 15) . Later, it was found that H+ species of sulfonic group on the resin was exchanged with [BMIM]+ and the released H+ in the solution catalyzed the hydrolysis . The replaced [BMIM]+ species remained on the resin even after the reaction, causing deactivation of Amberlyst 15DRY. When recycling Amberlyst 15DRY, renegeration by ion exchange with H2SO4 is necessary. 9 423 24 59 50 a Ratio of substrate and catalyst based on weight b Glucose c Oligosaccharides d The reaction was conducted in [BMIM]Cl e Microwave (350 W) was used in addition to heat f Total time including heating and cooling.