Download Advances in Porous Media, Vol. 3 by M. Yavuz Corapcioglu PDF

By M. Yavuz Corapcioglu

This ebook is the 3rd quantity of a sequence: ''Advances in Porous Media''. Our goal is to offer in-depth evaluate papers that provide entire insurance to the sphere of delivery in porous media. This sequence treats delivery phenomena in porous media as an interdisciplinary subject. hence, ''Advances in Porous Media'' will proceed to advertise the extension of ideas and purposes in a single sector to others, slicing throughout conventional limitations. the target of every bankruptcy is to study the paintings performed on a particular subject together with theoretical, numerical in addition to experimental reviews. The participants of this quantity, as for prior ones, come from numerous backgrounds: civil and environmental engineering, and earth and environmental sciences. The articles are aimed toward all scientists and engineers in quite a few different fields enthusiastic about the basics and purposes of tactics in porous media.

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In this section, the important factors affecting biodegradation of NAPLs are discussed, and the methods used by other modelers to describe these factors are described. 1, General conceptual model of biodegradation Before attempting to model a complex phenomenon such as subsurface biodegradation, it is often helpful to develop a conceptual model. The conceptual model should include all of the factors affecting the phenomenon. These factors can then be described mathematically and their relative importance assessed.

3. Reaeration Reaeration from the ground surface could be a major oxygen source for aerobic microorganisms and could be important in modeUng biodegradation. A significant mass of NAPL vapors can vaporize from contaminated pore water and groundwater, entering the air phase of the vadose zone where they can dissolve into pore water near the surface. The oxygen-rich conditions near the surface could accelerate removal by biodegradation. Oxygenation of the groundwater from reaeration could provide substantial oxygen to oxygen-poor groundwater when the vapor pressures of the NAPL components are low.

Constitutive relations In addition to the constraints on mass fractions and volumetric contents, the mass balance equations are coupled by other constitutive relations. These constitutive relations include: - capillary pressures = / ( P " , P^) - saturations = / (capillary pressures) - densities = / (phase pressure, composition of phase) - viscosity = / ( p r e s s u r e , phase composition) - equilibrium partition coefficients or kinetic expressions for interphase mass transfer. The above constitutive relationships make the system of equations highly nonlinear so that they must be solved using numerical methods.

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