By Stephen J. Lee
During this sequel to his renowned features of ecu background, 1494 - 1789, Stephen J. Lee charts the main ordinarily encountered subject matters of 19th and 20th century background, from the origins of the French Revolution, throughout the social and political reforms and upheavals of the final centuries to the current. necessary and obtainable, the booklet comprises: * an invigorating consultant and sound resource of history fabric * brief analytical chapters* an interpretative method of heritage, delivering quite a number viewpoints on each one topic* either a large survey and particular reports* stimulation for student's skill to boost and make clear subject* a cautious constitution which aids notetaking, coaching of essays and revision. Any scholar of ecu historical past probably want to have this publication at their side throughout their path reports.
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Extra info for Aspects of European History, 1789-1980 (University Paperbacks)
The result was that the French army became more disunited and less homogeneous at the very time that it was being outnumbered by the forces of the Allies. At the Battle of Leipzig (1813) Russia, Prussia and Austria overwhelmed Napoleon with the colossal figure of 365,000 against 195,000. In 1815, the Allies were able to muster over 600,000 troops for the invasion of France herself. As the Grand Empire contracted, of course, the supply of recruits to the French army dwindled. Larger armies had originally been introduced in the name of the people.
He seemed to alternate between harsh application of the System, which undoubtedly caused difficulties in Britain, and the granting of special concessions. After 1807, for example, he occupied most of Europe in order to enforce the System. Yet, in 1811, he adopted a more moderate policy. In a year which brought for Britain a chronic shortage of grain and the most unfavourable trade Aspects of european history 1789–1980 22 figures of the entire war, he allowed selected imports from Britain on licence, together with the export of grain supplies from France.
He reacted swiftly to internal disturbances within the German Confederation by imposing the Carlsbad Decrees in 1819 and the Six Articles in 1832. Above all, he refused to compromise over censorship. There were, he argued, only two possibilities: either severe censorship or total freedom of the press. Austria would not repeat the mistake made in France of tolerating something between them. After Russia, Austria was the most intransigent autocracy in Europe and seemed unable to follow the periodic examples of Prussia in accommodating to political changes and even experimenting with representative institutions.