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By Arthur Beiser (auth.)

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Extra info for Atome, Moleküle, Festkörper

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1 Atomspektren trachten. Wenn weiBes Licht durch ein Gas geschickt wird, findet Eine der wesentlichsten Leistungen der Bohrschen Theorie bestand in der Erklarung des Ursprungs der Spektrallinien, man, daB Licht mit gewissen Wellenlangen, die im Emissionsspektrum des Gases enthalten sind, absorbiert wird. Das entund daher wollen wir zunachst einen Blick auf die Atomstehende Absorptionslinienspektrum besteht aus einem hellen spektren werfen. 4). Emissionsspektren bestehen wenn auch mit unterschiedlichen Intensitaten, vertreten sind.

Stand, den ein a-Teilchen dieser Wellenlange jemals zu einem Goldkern erreicht, 3 . 10-14 m, also 6 de Broglie-Wellenlangen, und so durfen wir das a-Teilchen als klassisches Teilchen bei der Wechselwirkung betrachten. Wir haben daher recht, wenn wir uns das Atom mit Hilfe des Rutherfordschen Modells vorstellen, auchwenn die Dynamik der atomaren 7. Elektronen - die eine ganz andere Fragestellung bedeutet 8. einen nichtklassischen Zugang erfordert. Wiihrend wir also berechtigterweise erwarten, daB die 9.

14) 1 m e4 (1 1) nf=3:~=8€~Ch3 j2-n2 n = 4, 5, 6, ... 15) m e4 ( . 1 1 ~ = 8 €~ Ch3 4 2 1) n = 5, 6, 7, ... 16) 1) n =6, 7, 8, .. 17) nf = 4: m e4 1 (1 - n2 nf=5 : ~=8€~Ch3 52-n2 Diese Reihen stimmen in ihrer Form mit den empirischen Spektralserien tiberein, die wir frtiher diskutierten. Die LymanSerie (Gl. 2)) entspricht nf = 1 , die Balmer-Serie (Gl. 1)) nf =2, die Paschen-Serie nf = 3, die Brackett-Serie nf =4 und die Pfund-Serie nf = 5.

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