By C B Lucas
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Extra info for Atomic and Molecular Beams: Production and Collimation
Kinetic Theory of Gases and Atomic Beam Terminology 23 More generally the conductance C is used mainly by those using the terminology of vacuum physics, for any gas flow (usually expressed in l s−1) divided by the pressure. Hence S is a special case of the conductance. The time constant τ in the volume around the beam is required if the beam is chopped in order to separate a signal due to the beam from that of the background gas, in which case the background gas pressure should be insensitive to whether the beam is on or off.
The earliest techniques for producing atomic beams for these experiments are described, when appropriate, in Chapter 5 under the relevant element. Hence we discontinue the historical approach following this brief introduction, since it is more useful to those wishing to design a beam to group experiments basically in terms of elements and compounds rather than chronological order. In the first atomic beam experiments, the impedance was simply a circular orifice, a fraction of a millimetre in diameter in a sheet that was thinner than this.
The use of crossed molecular beams to study chemical reactions is reviewed by Toennies (1968). He mentions the use of multichannel arrays and notes that the mean free path of atoms may be less than the channel length. Mueller’s (1970) review is particularly concerned with molecules. Following a brief introduction to beam formation and detection, he considers the behaviour of molecules in homogeneous and inhomogeneous electric and magnetic fields. Examples of applications are given. Schlier (1970) edited the proceedings of an Introduction 15 Enrico Fermi international school on molecular beams and reaction kinetics.