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Suppose the source of γ-rays is at a point S on the focussing circle such that the Bragg condition (2d sin θ = nλ) is satisfied. Then a diffracted beam enters the detector Nuclear Radioactivity 59 D(a scintillation counter) as if it came from the virtual source at S’. For each different wavelength there is a particular position of the source on the focussing circle for which a strong diffracted beam is obtained. In order to perform the experiment, the source position on the circle is varied, and the corresponding counting rates of the detector are determined.

Only the α-particle mass is sufficiently smaller than the sum of the masses of its constituent nucleons. Therefore, in the formation of α-particle within the nucleus sufficient energy is released which becomes available to the particle to escape. Again, there remains the problem of how an α-particle can actually escape the nucleus. A nucleus is surrounded by a potential barrier, and the escaping particle must have enough energy to cross the barrier. The uranium nucleus, for α-particles, has a potential barrier of 27 MeV height so that only particles having 27 MeV or more energy would be able to escape.

82 days. What fraction of a freshly separated sample of this nuclide will disintegrate in The Radioactivity 31 one day ? 71 × 1015 atoms, how many atoms will disintegrate during the first day ? Solution: If N0 be the number of atoms at t = 0, and N the number at time t, then by Rutherford-Soddy law N = N0e–λt or loge N0 = λt. 693 = per day and t = 1 day. 6%. 5 × l014. 32 Encyclopaedia of Atomic Physics 8. The half-life of Na24 is 15 hr. 5% of this isotope to decay ? Or The half-life of a radioactive substance is 15 hr.

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