By Wolfgang Demtröder
This advent to Atomic and Molecular Physics explains how our current version of atoms and molecules has been built over the past centuries by way of many experimental discoveries and from the theoretical facet by way of the advent of quantum physics to the sufficient description of micro-particles.
It illustrates the wave version of debris through many examples and indicates the boundaries of classical description. The interplay of electromagnetic radiation with atoms and molecules and its strength for spectroscopy is printed in additional element and specifically lasers as glossy spectroscopic instruments are mentioned extra thoroughly.
Many examples and issues of ideas should still result in the reader to an severe lively cooperation.
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Extra resources for Atoms, molecules and photons: An introduction to atomic-, molecular- and quantum-physics
One α particle collides with a (not visible) nitrogen nucleus at the crossing point of the two arrows, forming an 178 O nucleus and a proton. The O nucleus ﬂies towards 11 o’clock (from W. Finkelnburg: Einführung in die Atomphysik, Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, 1976) 23 24 2. The Concept of the Atom + a) Conductive layer Heater Barium supply R − Tungsten tip ZnS screen dius R) with a magniﬁcation factor M = R/r. With R = 10 cm and r = 10 nm a magniﬁcation of M = 107 is achieved (Fig. 22).
A very sharp tip at the end of a thin tungsten wire serves as a cathode in the middle of an evacuated glass bulb. The anode has the form of a sphere and is covered on the inside with a ﬂuorescent layer (like a television screen). When a voltage V of several kilovolts is applied between cathode and anode, the electric ﬁeld strength at the cathode surface is V rˆ , r where r is the radius of the nearly spherical tip of the tungsten wire (Fig. 22b). With special etching techniques it is possible to fabricate tips with r < 10 nm!
Why the attractive Coulomb force between the positive and negative atomic constituents does not lead to the collapse of atoms has only been recently answered by quantum mechanics (see Sect. 3). 1 Cathode Rays and Kanalstrahlen Investigations of gas discharges by J. Plucker (1801– 1868), Johann Wilhelm Hittorf (1824–1914), Joseph John Thomson (1856–1940), Phillip Lenard (1862– 1947) (Nobel Prize 1905), and many others have all contributed much to our understanding of the electric structure of atoms.