By Henry Rich
An creation and reference for the J programming language, an array language of remarkable productiveness. The reader learns the weather of J in phrases normal to a C or Java programmer, after which is going directly to tips on how to take into consideration difficulties J-style, operating with whole-array operations instead of loops.
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Additional resources for J for C programmers
That way is the rank conjunction " . We will learn all about conjunctions later on—the syntax is a little different than for verbs—but for now, we'll try to understand this " . It's used like this: u"n to produce a new verb that is u applied to n-cells individually. This is a simple idea, but its ramifications spread wide. As a first example: +/"1 i. 2 3 3 12 This is what we were looking for. It happened this way: The verb rank is 1 and the noun rank is 2, so we will be applying the verb to 1-cells.
2 3 4 12 15 18 21 48 51 54 57 Summing the 2-cells (+/"2) is not the same as summing the 1-cells within each 2-cell (+/"1"2). Make sure you see why. Ah, you may say, but +/"1"2 is equivalent to +/"1 . You are right for the monadic case, but not for the dyadic: (i. 3 4) +"1"2 i. 2 3 4 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 (i. 3 4) +"1 i. 2 3 4 Dyad +"1"2 is executed as (+"1)"2, i. e. it has rank 2. So, there is only one 2-cell of the left operand i. 3 4, and that cell is replicated to match the shape of the right operand.
C distinguishes between single-character constants (such as 'a') and strings (such as "abc"), using single quotes for characters and double quotes for strings. J uses only single quotes for defining character constants (the " character is a primitive in its own right). If exactly one character is between the quotes, the value is an atom; if none or more than one, the result is a list. Array-creating Verbs Now that we know how to talk about arrays, we might as well create a few and see what they look like.